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Glossary

A8
The eight East European countries that joined the European Union in May 2004 (Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia).
Synonyms: Accession 8

Accession countries
Countries which joined the European Union in 2004 and which had a low per capita income compared to the UK (i.e. Poland, Latvia, Lithuania, Czech Republic, Slovenia, Slovakia, Hungary and Estonia). These also include countries which joined the European Union in 2007 (i.e. Bulgaria and Romania). Workers from these countries have had unrestricted access to the UK labour market since 1 January 2014.
See also: New EU countries

APS
A quarterly survey of British households. See our data sources and limitations page for a detailed description.
Synonyms: Annual Population Survey

Asylum Applicants / Asylum Seekers
Individuals who come to the UK to apply for protection as refugees and who are still waiting for a decision on their claim.
See also: Refugee

British Election Study
Series of surveys on political attitudes in Britain. See our data sources and limitations page for a detailed description.
Synonyms: BES

British Social Attitudes survey
Series of surveys on political and social attitudes. See our data sources and limitations page for a detailed description.
Synonyms: BSA

Citizenship Survey
Government-run survey of a random sample of the British population. See our data sources and limitations page for a detailed description.

Civil partner
A legal relationship status for which same sex couples may register, and which accords many of the same legal rights as marriage.

Cohort
A group of individuals having a factor in common. In the context of asylum data, all people applying for asylum in the same. In the context of public opinion data, all those born in the same year.

Commonwealth
Voluntary association with historical origins in the British Empire, made up of 54 countries.

Correlates
Factors or variables that are statistically associated with one another.

Department for Communities and Local Government
UK government department responsible for policy in the following areas, mainly in England: building regulations, community cohesion, decentralisation, fire and resilience, housing, local government, Ordnance Survey, planning, race equality, the Thames Gateway and urban regeneration.

Dependant
In the migration context, a family member of a migrant permitted to come to Britain or settle in Britain along with that migrant. Most commonly a spouse or a child under the age of 18. Alternate spelling: dependent.

DFID
The UK government department responsible for managing Britain’s aid to poor countries (by its own self-description).
Synonyms: Department for International Development

Discretionary leave to remain
A possible outcome of an asylum case that grants the applicant the right to remain in the UK temporarily and leads to a further review at the end of the period of leave.
Synonyms: DL

Economic Activity Rate
The percentage of people aged 16 and over who are economically active.

Economically Active
People over 16 in employment or unemployed.

Economically Inactive
People who are neither in employment nor unemployed. This group includes, for example, those who are looking after the family and/or home or retired.

EEA
European Union (EU) countries plus Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway.
Synonyms: European Economic Area

Employment Rate
The percentage of total in employment against all people in the relevant age group.

EU
Economic and political union of 27 member states. The member states are Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom.
Synonyms: European Union

Foreign nationals
In the UK context, anyone who does not have British citizenship.

Foreign-born
In the UK context, anyone who was born outside the UK. This can include naturalised citizens and children born abroad of UK national parent(s).

Further Education
Schooling at a level beyond compulsory secondary education but below degree-level.
Synonyms: FE

GNI
Gross national income (GNI) is the total domestic and foreign output claimed by residents of a country, consisting of gross domestic product (GDP) plus factor incomes earned by foreign residents, minus income earned in the domestic economy by nonresidents.

Government Office Regions
The primary geographic classification within England for the presentation of regional statistics.
Synonyms: GOR, GORs

Great Britain
Includes England, Wales and Scotland.

Hard case support
Subsistence and accommodations provided to asylum seekers whose applications have been rejected but who are both destitute and unable to immediately leave the UK. Also known as Section 4 support.

Higher education
Degree-level education, including undergraduate and postgraduate studies.

HMRC
The UK government department responsible for collecting taxes and administering some social benefits.
Synonyms: HM Revenue & Customs

Home Office
The lead government department for immigration and passports, drugs policy, counter-terrorism, police, and science and research.

Humanitarian protection
A possible outcome of an asylum case that grants the applicant the right to remain in the UK temporarily and leads to a further review at the end of the period of leave.
Synonyms: HP

ICTs
People who work for multi-national companies and are being transferred by their employer from an overseas location to a UK branch of the company. Those from non-EEA countries require a visa to enter the UK and are counted in Home Office Control of Immigration statistics.
Synonyms: Intra-company transfers

Indefinite leave to remain
Permission to stay in the UK permanently without being subject to immigration control. Also known as settlement.
Synonyms: ILR

International student
In UK usage, someone attending an educational institution in the UK whose nationality is either not British, or in some usages, not from any EEA country nor from Switzerland. Also known as foreign students.

IPS
A survey of passengers entering and leaving the UK. See our data sources and limitations page for a detailed description.
Synonyms: International Passenger Survey

Ipsos MORI
A commercial polling firm that conducts surveys of public attitudes toward migration and other issues.

Jus sanguinis
Literally “right of blood.” Describes nations that accord citizenship rights mainly through inheritance from parents, rather than through place of birth.

Jus soli
Literally “right of the soil.” Describes nations that accord citizenship rights mainly to those born in the nation, rather than through parents’ citizenship.

Leave to remain
Permission for a foreign national to remain in the UK.

LFS
Quarterly survey of households in Britain. See our data sources and limitations page for a detailed description.
Synonyms: Labour Force Survey

Life in the UK test
A multiple-choice exam that migrants wishing to settle or naturalise in the UK can take to demonstrate the required level knowledge of life in the UK.

LTIM
Long Term International Migration: the official government statistics on migration to and from the UK, produced by ONS by adjustments to the International Passenger Survey.

Main applicant
In cases in which a couple or family is seeking asylum or permission to enter as a migrant, the person who files the application and who must meet the required qualification (e.g. points in the Points-Based System).

Migration Advisory Committee
An independent expert body that advises the government on labour migration issues.
Synonyms: MAC

National Health Service (NHS)
The publicly funded health care system of the United Kingdom.

Naturalisation
The act of acquiring a new citizenship or nationality.

Net Fiscal Impact of Migrants
The difference between the taxes and other contributions of migrants and the cost of the government services used and public benefits received by migrants.

New EU countries
Countries that have been members of the EU since 2004. This includes: Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Cyprus (EU part), Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia.
See also: Accession countries

NINo
Unique identifying numbers given to all people born in the UK and to non-UK nationals over 16 who are planning to work and/or claim benefits in the UK.
Synonyms: National Insurance number

Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency
An Executive Agency within the Department of Finance and Personnel. It provides statistical and research information regarding Northern Ireland.

OECD
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development: an international organisation of 33 countries, mostly in North America and Europe. It defines itself as a forum of countries committed to democracy and the market economy.

Old EU countries
Those countries that were members of the EU before 2004. These includes: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom.

ONS
The executive office of the UK Statistics Authority, a non-ministerial department which reports directly to Parliament. It produces official statistics on immigration, emigration, and net migration.
Synonyms: Office for National Statistics

Overstayers
International migrants who remain resident in a country after their legal permission to stay (“leave to remain”) has expired.

Points-Based System (PBS)
The UK’s system for managing immigration from outside the EEA, introduced in 2008.

Refugee
Under the United Nations Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees from 1951, a refugee is a person who “owing to a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group, or political opinion, is outside the country of his nationality, and is unable to or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to avail himself of the protection of that country”.
See also: Asylum Applicants / Asylum Seekers

Registration of minors as citizens
A process by which minor children can become British citizens without applying for it on their own; includes but not limited to children born in the UK to non-British parents.

Removals
Government-authorized and enforced departures of foreign nationals without legal permission to remain in the UK.

Right of abode
The right to live permanently in the UK without any restrictions on rights to enter, exit, and work.

Settlement
The status granted to foreign nationals conferring the to remain indefinitely in the UK. Also known as indefinite leave to remain.

Short-term International Migrant
By international standards, a person who changes his or her country of usual residence for at least three months but less than twelve months. Some ONS data use a second definition based a stay of one to twelve months.

Student visitors
People with entry visas allowing them to stay in the UK for up to 6 months as students in formal education. They do not have the right to work while in the UK. Student visitor visas are required only for nationals of visa countries.

Total Employment
Workers aged 16 to 64 (men) and 16 to 59 (women) who are “at work” both part time and full time as employees, self-employed, under government scheme or working for a family.

UKBA
Government agency responsible for managing border control for the UK, and enforcing immigration and customs regulations. It also considers applications for permission to enter or stay in the UK, and for citizenship and asylum.
Synonyms: UK Border Agency

UNDP
United Nations Development Programme. The UN’s global development network, an organization that attempts to help developing countries “attract and use aid effectively” (from UNDP website).

Unemployment
The number of unemployed people in the UK is measured through the Labour Force Survey following the internationally agreed definition recommended by the International Labour Organisation (ILO). Unemployed people meet the following conditions: they are without a job, want a job, have actively sought work in the last four weeks and are available to start work in the next two weeks or out of work, or they have found a job and are waiting to start it in the next two weeks.

Unemployment Rate
The number of unemployed people expressed as a percentage of the economically active population.

UNHCR (United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees)
The office of the UNHCR is responsible for leading international action to protect refugees’ rights and resolve refugee crises.

United Kingdom
England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland.

Voluntary departures
Exits from the UK of people that the government is seeking to remove.

Work permit
Prior to the Points-Based system, a primary form of permission to work in the UK as a foreign national.

Worker Registration Scheme (WRS)
A government programme to monitor the employment of citizens of A8 countries after EU enlargement in May 2004.

Working age population
All individuals aged 16 to 64 (men) and 16 to 59 (women).

World Bank
An international institution that offers financial and technical assistance to developing countries around the world.

YouGov
A commercial polling firm that conducts surveys of public attitudes toward migration and other issues.

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